Cartilage

Authors: Woong Kim, PhD; Chris E. Kawcak, DVM, PhD; C. Wayne McIlwraith, BVSc, PhD; Elwyn C. Firth, BVSc, PhD; Neil D. Broom, PhD
Journal: American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective—To describe and measure histologic features of midcarpal joint cartilage defects in Thoroughbreds and evaluate the influence of early conditioning exercise on defect development.

Sample—24 midcarpal joints from twelve 18-month-old Thoroughbreds.

Authors: Frances M. D. Henson, MA, Vet MB, PhD; Alan M. J. Getgood, MD; David M. Caborn, MD; C. Wayne McIlwraith, DVM, PhD, DSc; Neil Rushton, MD
Journal: American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective—To investigate effects of 1% hyaluronic acid–chondroitin sulfate–N-acetyl glucosamine (HCNAG) on the damage repair response in equine articular cartilage.

Sample—Articular cartilage from 9 clinically normal adult horses.

Category: Cartilage - Equine
Authors: R.S. Harlan, R.C. Haut, M.W. Orth
Journal: Journal of Equine Veterinary Science

Effective prevention and treatment of osteoarthritis for horses is still needed. This research tests the ability of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate (GLN/CS) to mitigate inflammatory and mechanical stress in vitro. In this study, GLN/CS mediate this effect by a decrease of the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) and a decrease of proteoglycan release from the extracellular matrix in stressed cartilage explants. Explants were cultured with interleukin-1 (IL-1) + mechanical trauma with and without GLN/CS. NO and prostaglandin E2 were measured as indicators of an inflammatory response.

Category: Cartilage - Equine
Authors: Sally E. Henderson, BS; Kelly S. Santangelo, DVM, PhD; Alicia L. Bertone, DVM, PhD
Journal: American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective—To determine effects of various concentrations of retinoic acid (RA) or a synthetic RA receptor antagonist (LE135) on equine chondrocytes or bone marrow—derived equine mesenchymal stem cells (BMDMSCs) in monolayer cultures.

Sample—Articular cartilage and BMDMSCs from 5 clinically normal horses.

Category: Cartilage - Equine
Authors: Holly D. Sparks, DVM; Alan J. Nixon, BVSC, MS, DACVS; David S. Bogenrief, DVM
Journal: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Case Description—3 horses were referred for treatment of subchondral cystic lesions of 1 or both medial femoral condyles.

Clinical Findings—All horses had clinically apparent lameness confirmed to be due to a radiographically evident subchondral cystic lesion of the medial femoral condyle with a large articular component (> 15 mm) and shallow subchondral depth (< 10 mm). Arthroscopic assessment of affected cartilage revealed undulating cartilage with a relatively smooth surface and extensive residual perimeter attachment.

Authors: Carolyne A. Tranquille, BSc Sue J. Dyson, PhD Anthony S. Blunden, PhD Simon N. Collins, PhD Tim D. H. Parkin, PhD Allen E. Goodship, PhD Rachel C. Murray, PhD
Journal: American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective—To determine whether histopathologic characteristics of the osteochondral units of equine distal tarsal joints were associated with exercise history in horses without lameness. Sample Population—30 cadaver tarsi from horses without lameness and with known exercise history were separated into 3 groups: nonridden, pasture exercise (group P); low-intensity, ridden exercise (group L); and high-intensity, elite competition exercise (group E). Procedures—Standardized sites from the centrodistal and tarsometatarsal joints under went histologic preparation.

Category: Bone - Cartilage - Equine
Authors: Anne M. Nicholson, DVM, MS; Troy N. Trumble, DVM, PhD; Kelly A. Merritt, BS; Murray P. Brown, DVM, MSc
Journal: Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound

Objective—To determine the effects of horse age, osteochondral injury, and joint type on a synthesis biomarker and 3 degradative biomarkers of type II collagen in Thoroughbreds.

Animals—Healthy rested adult (3- to 12-year-old) Thoroughbreds (n = 19), yearling (1- to 2-year-old) Thoroughbreds (40), and Thoroughbred racehorses (2 to 7 years old) undergoing arthroscopic surgery for removal of osteochondral fragments that resulted from training or racing (41).

Category: Cartilage - Equine
Authors: JULIEN OLIVE
Journal: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound

The suitability of low-field magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for assessment of articular cartilage has been questioned, based on insufficient image quality. The purposes of this study were to describe the MR anatomy of the normal distal interphalangeal (DIP) cartilage, and to evaluate the sensitivity and accuracy of low-field MR imaging for identification of cartilage erosions that were created ex vivo. Imaging sequences included sagittal and dorsal multiple-oblique T1-weighted gradient-recalled echo (GRE) and sagittal dual echo sequences.

Category: Cartilage - Equine - MRI
Authors: Christopher R. Byron, DVM, MS; Anne M. Barger, DVM, MS; Allison A. Stewart, DVM, MS; Holly C. Pondenis; Timothy M. Fan, DVM, PhD
Journal: American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective—To determine concentrations of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in equine chondrocytes and synoviocytes and to quantify changes in the OPG:RANKL ratio in response to exogenous factors.

Sample Population—Samples of articular cartilage and synovium with grossly normal appearance obtained from metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal joints of 5 adult (1- to 8-year-old) horses.

Category: Cartilage - Equine
Authors: JULIEN OLIVE 1 , MARC-ANDRÉ D'ANJOU 2 , CHRISTIANE GIRARD 3 , SHEILA LAVERTY 2 , CHRISTINE THEORET 1
Journal: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound

The purpose was to evaluate the capacity of 1.5 T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to assess articular cartilage in racehorses with naturally occurring metacarpophalangeal joint osteoarthritis. A sagittal, three-dimensional spoiled gradient-recalled echo (SPGR) with fat saturation (FS) sequence was acquired ex vivo on 20 joints. Following joint dissection, specific areas on the third metacarpal condyle were designated for subsequent sampling for histologic cartilage thickness measurement and modified Mankin scoring.

Category: Cartilage - Equine - MRI