Spine

Artificial disc replacement alone is unable to completely cure cervical degenerative diseases; thus, a stabilization device markedly improves patient recovery.

In order to meet this requirement, an anterior spinal instrumentation combining a prosthetic disc nucleus with a flexible stabilization device (ASI combining PDN/FD) was developed. An artificial disc was designed and manufactured using polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel (PVA-H) with a repeated freeze-melting technique, and subsequently the dehydration and swelling properties of the PVA-H were investigated.

Category: Spine

Cervical spondylomyelopathy (CSM), also known as wobbler syndrome, affects mainly large and giant-breed dogs, causing compression of the cervical spinal cord and/or nerve roots.

Structural and dynamic components seem to play a role in the development of CSM; however, pathogenesis is not yet fully understood. Finite element models have been used for years in human medicine to study the dynamic behavior of structures, but it has been mostly overlooked in veterinary studies.

We compared clinical outcomes after ventral fixation in dogs with atlantoaxial instability (AAI) on the basis of the presence or absence of atlantooccipital overlapping (AOO).

Of 41 dogs diagnosed with AAI and treated ventral fixation, 12 exhibited AOO (AOO group), whereas 29 did not (non-AOO group).

The AOO group had significantly higher neurological scores before (P=0.024) and 1 month after (P=0.033) surgery compared with the non-AOO group; however, no significant differences were observed between the groups 2 months after surgery.

OBJECTIVE: To develop a patient-specific 3-dimensional (3D) printed drill guide for placement of cervical transpedicular screws and to assess its accuracy.

STUDY DESIGN: Prospective case-series.

SAMPLE POPULATION: Thirty-two cervical pedicle screws (CPS) placed in 3 large breed dogs.

Category: Spine

OBJECTIVE: This case series describes the clinical presentation, management and outcome of three cats diagnosed with cervical intervertebral disc disease that underwent decompressive ventral slot surgery.

METHODS: This is a retrospective case series evaluating client-owned cats undergoing a ventral slot surgical procedure to manage cervical intervertebral disc disease (n = 3).

RESULTS: A routine ventral slot surgery was performed in each case without complication, resulting in postoperative neurological improvement in all three cases.

Category: Spine

OBJECTIVE: To determine the biomechanical behavior of a novel distraction-stabilization system, consisting of an intervertebral distraction bolt, polyaxial screws, and connecting rods, in the canine lumbosacral spine.

STUDY DESIGN: Biomechanical study.

SAMPLE POPULATION: Cadaveric canine lumbosacral spines (L4-Cd3) (N = 8).

Category: Spine

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the occurrence and frequency of abnormalities at the second and third cervical vertebral junction (C2/3) in dogs with and without atlantoaxial instability (AAI).

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective multi-institutional case-controlled case series.

ANIMALS: One hundred and seventeen dogs with AAI and 117 dogs without AAI.

Category: Spine

OBJECTIVES: Ventral atlantoaxial stabilization techniques are challenging surgical procedures in dogs. Available surgical guidelines are based upon subjective anatomical landmarks, and limited radiographic and computed tomographic data.

Category: Imaging - Spine

A 7-year-old cat was referred with pelvic limb ataxia. Radiography and CT revealed bone resorption of the L1 vertebral arch, and myelography identified a compressive extradural lesion.

The mass was surgically removed and histopathologically diagnosed as giant cell osteosarcoma. Three years later, the recurrent tumor resection and vertebral fixation were performed. Six months later, vertebrectomy was performed to radically excise the recurrent mass and a titanium spinal cage was placed.

Category: Spine

Atlanto-axial (AA) instability due to ligament insufficiency is a common cause of cervical spinal cord compression in toy breeds. However, in some dogs a difference in size between the atlas and the axis leads to joint incongruence that exacerbates AA subluxation and makes surgical treatment challenging.

Category: Imaging - Spine