Pain Management

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to (1) compare outcome assessments in normal and osteoarthritic cats and (2) evaluate the analgesic efficacy of tramadol in feline osteoarthritis (OA), in a prospective, randomised, blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover design.

OBJECTIVES: Anatomical and methodological detail is lacking regarding local anesthetic peripheral nerve block techniques for distal pelvic limb surgery in cats. The aim of this study was to develop, describe and test nerve block methods based on cadaveric dissections and dye injections.

BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the effectiveness and safety of grapiprant for treatment of pain in dogs with osteoarthritis (OA).

HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: Grapiprant will relieve pain as measured by the owner's and veterinarian's evaluation of pain in dogs with OA. Another objective was evaluation of the safety of grapiprant.

ANIMALS: Two hundred and eighty-five client-owned dogs with OA were enrolled and treated with grapiprant or placebo with 262 cases (N = 131 in each group) evaluable for the effectiveness analysis.

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess retrospectively the efficacy and complication rate of hindlimb peripheral nerve blocks (PNBs) in cats.

This is a retrospective study evaluating femoral-sciatic nerve blocks (FSBs), epidural analgesia, and non-regional analgesia (NRA) in dogs undergoing tibia-plateau-leveling-osteotomy surgery.

The analgesic efficacy of liposomal hydromorphone (LE-hydro) was tested in dogs undergoing limb amputation.

Category: Pain Management
Authors: Marucio RL, Monteiro ER, Moroz LR, Fantoni DT.
Journal: Am J Vet Res

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the postoperative analgesic effects of epidural administration of morphine and neostigmine, either alone or in combination, in dogs. Animals-30 dogs undergoing orthopedic surgery on a pelvic limb.

PROCEDURES: Anesthetic protocols were standardized. At the end of surgery, 10 dogs each received 1 of 3 epidural treatments: morphine (0.1 mg/kg), neostigmine (5 μg/kg), or morphine plus neostigmine (0.1 mg/kg and 5 μg/kg, respectively). Postoperative pain scores and the need for rescue analgesia were evaluated for 24 hours.

Category: Pain Management
Authors: Kim TW1, Vercelli C2, Briganti A3, Re G2, Giorgi M4.
Journal: Vet J

Parecoxib (PX) is an injectable prodrug of valdecoxib (VX, which is a selective cyclo-oxyganase-2 (COX-2)) inhibitor licensed for humans. The aim of the present study was to evaluate pharmacokinetics and in vitro/ex vivo cyclooxygenase selectivity of PX and VX in cats. In a whole blood in vitro study, PX did not affect either COX enzymes whereas VX revealed a COX-2 selective inhibitory effect in feline whole blood. The IC50 values of VX for COX-2 and COX-1 were 0.45 and 38.6 µM, respectively. Six male cats were treated with 2.5 mg/kg of PX by intramuscular injection.

Category: Pain Management
Authors: Morrison R1, Reilly JJ, Penpraze V, Pendlebury E, Yam PS.
Journal: J Small Anim Pract


To evaluate long-term changes in physical activity and sedentary behaviour during weight loss in dogs.

Authors: De Gennaro C1, Vettorato E, Corletto F.
Journal: J Small Anim Pract


To evaluate intraoperative effects, complications, postoperative rescue analgesia requirement and presence of postoperative unilateral blockade after hypobaric spinal anaesthesia in dogs.

Category: Pain Management