Luxation/Subluxation

Authors: Andrew James Carey Beer, Sorrel Langley-Hobbs, Alex Belch

Objectives: Medial patellar luxation (MPL) is the most common developmental cause of hindlimb lameness in cats. The association between femoral and tibial conformation and MPL measured on computed tomography (CT) has not been reported in cats. The aims were to report femoral and tibial conformation in cats with and without MPL and to report normal femoral and tibial angles.

Authors: Julien Letesson, Bastien Goin, Eric Viguier, Thibaut Cachon

Objectives: The aim of our study was to describe a biomechanical testing protocol to reproduce ex vivo craniodorsal hip luxation specific to the feline model, and evaluate the biomechanical properties of an intact hip joint compared with the fixation strength of two different techniques of extra-articular hip stabilisation.

Authors: Rachel E Rivenburg, Sean M Murphy, Ciaran T Jones, Kyle W Martin

Objective: The aim of this study was to describe an arthroscopic-assisted technique for coxofemoral toggle rod placement, and to report on the feasibility, drill tunnel trajectory and accuracy of tunnel aperture location using this method.

Study design: Cadaveric pilot study.

Sample population: Eight coxofemoral joints.

Authors: Akari Sasaki, Yuki Hidaka, Manabu Mochizuki, Muneki Honnami

Trochleoplasty is often performed in dogs with medial patellar luxation (MPL); however, the current guidelines on when to perform a trochleoplasty in dogs are vague. The sulcus angle (SA) is used to assess the femoral trochlear morphology in humans.

The aim of this study is to describe a method to measure the SA and other parameters of trochlea morphology in dogs using computed tomography.

Authors: Sebastian Prior, Francisco Silveira, Lida Pappa, Pablo Pérez López, Robert Quinn, Darren Barnes

Background: This study aimed to determine whether Blumensaat's line, a consistently present radiographic feature delineating the peak of the femoral intercondylar fossa, could be used to assess for cranial tibial subluxation in canine stifles with cranial cruciate ligament disease.

Authors: Petar Polajnar, Zsigmond Szanto, Florian Willmitzer, Nikola Medl

A 9-year-old, neutered, male, Cairn terrier dog presented with a 3-year history of progressive pain and lameness of the right hindlimb. After an acute episode of severe pain and non-weight-bearing lameness, the dog was referred to our clinic for evaluation.

The physical examination was unremarkable; the orthopaedic examination revealed a positive cranial drawer sign and medial patellar luxation grade 3/4. Orthogonal radiographs were taken. Chronic degenerative changes consistent with cranial cruciate ligament insufficiency and medial patellar luxation were noted.

Authors: Cheol-Kyu Han, Jinsu Kang, Haebeom Lee, Namsoo Kim, Suyoung Heo

Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe an alternative landmark for screw insertion into the body of the ilium with bilateral sacroiliac luxation in cats.

Authors: Esa V Eskelinen, Ari P Suhonen, Juha V Virolainen, William D Liska

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the load at failure, stiffness and mode of failure between three types of tibial tuberosity transposition fixation techniques: (a) pin and figure-8 tension band wire (Pin-TBW), (b) locking plate with pin and a tension band wire (Plate-Pin-TBW) and (c) locking plate with a pin (Plate-Pin).

Authors: Daniel A McCarthy, L Abbigail Granger, Karanvir S Aulakh, J Alberto Gines

Objective: To improve the accuracy of drilling during the repair of sacroiliac luxations (SILs) with a 3D-printed patient-specific drill guide (3D-GDT) compared to free-hand drilling technique (FHDT).

Study design: Blinded, randomized, prospective ex vivo study.

Sample population: Sixteen canine cadavers (20-25 kg).

Authors: Liene Feldmane, Lars F H Theyse

Objective: To assess the role of the proximodistal and caudocranial relative position of the patellar ligament insertion on the tibia and patellar ligament length-to-patellar length ratio (PLL:PL) in small-breed dogs with and without grade II medial patellar luxation (MPL).

Study design: Retrospective study.

Sample population: Dogs weighing ≤15 kg, including 43 stifles with MPL and 34 control stifles.