Distal Extremities

A young Labrador Retriever was presented for treatment of severe distal hindlimb necrosis caused by bandage ischemia. During digit amputation at the metatarsophalangeal joints, the third and fourth digital pads were salvaged and transferred to the metatarsal stump to create a weight-bearing surface. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) was utilized for flap immobilization and to promote granulation tissue in the remaining wound defect.

OBJECTIVES: To describe the normal anatomy of the soft tissues of the canine tarsus as identified on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to evaluate specific MRI sequences and planes for observing structures of diagnostic interest.

STUDY DESIGN: Prospective descriptive study.

ANIMALS: Canine cadavers (n = 3).

OBJECTIVE:  To evaluate the influence of epidemiologic, surgical, and mechanical factors on the durations of bone consolidation and external fixation after distraction osteogenesis in dogs.

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study.

Authors: Vallefuoco R1, Manassero M, Leperlier D, Scotti S, Viateau V, Moissonnier P.
Journal: Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol

Objective: To report our clinical experience in the surgical treatment of feline thoraco-lumbar vertebral fracture-luxations using optimal safe implantation corridors as previously described in vitro. Study design: Retrospective clinical study. Materials and Methods: Medical records and radiographs of cats with vertebral fracture-luxations stabilized by screws and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) using optimal safe implantation corridors between 2009 and 2011 were reviewed.

Authors: Cappellari F1, Piras L, Panichi E, Ferretti A, Peirone B.
Journal: Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol

Objective: To evaluate the outcome of treatment of antebrachial and crural septic non-union fractures in dogs using circular external skeletal fixation (CESF), and to document the type and frequency of complications associated with this technique. Methods: The medical records of all dogs with infected antebrachial and crural non-union fractures treated using the methods of Ilizarov at the Department of Animal Pathology of the University of Turin between 2006 and 2011 were retrospectively reviewed.

Authors: Mostafa AA1, Griffon DJ, Thomas MW, Constable PD.
Journal: Vet Surg


To (1) develop a technique to determine the anteversion angle (AA) of the femur on a single radiograph; (2) determine the correlation between this technique and other published radiographic and computed tomographic (CT) methods; and (3) compare the diagnostic outcome of these methods in determining the level at which femoral torsion occurred in Labrador Retrievers with cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) deficiency.


Cross-sectional clinical study.


Authors: Wood MC1, Fox DB, Tomlinson JL.
Journal: Vet Surg



To describe a radiographic method for determination of the mechanical axes and joint orientation lines in orthogonal planes for the canine humerus and establish a range of normal joint orientation angles in a population of large breed dogs.


Radiographic study.


Humeri (n = 50) of skeletally mature, nonchondrodystrophic canine cadavers, weighing 20-40 kg with no evidence of orthopedic disease.


Authors: Macrì F1, Ciotola F, Rapisarda G, Lanteri G, Albarella S, Aiudi G, Liotta L, Marino F.
Journal: JSAP

A case of non-syndromic, complete syndactyly involving all four limbs is described in a three-month-old male crossbreed dog for the first time.Syndactyly is a rare condition in most animal species, in dogs it has been infrequently reported. Findings of clinical, radiographic and cytogenetic analyses are described and demonstrate probably for the first time that numerical and structural chromosome aberrations are not involved in the pathogenesis of this case of syndactyly.

Authors: Kornmayer M, Failing K, Matis U.
Journal: VCOT

Objectives: Lameness after metacarpal and metatarsal fractures in dogs is reported to occur with an incidence of 18% to 70%. On the basis of long-term results, the prognosis of these injuries was re-evaluated retrospectively. Methods: Medical records of 100 dogs with complete clinical and radiographic follow-up examinations after an average of four years (4 months - 14 years) were evaluated. According to their treatment, patients were allocated to three groups (Group 1 = conservative, Group 2 = surgical, Group 3 = combined).

Authors: Maki LC, Kim SE, Winter MD, Kow KY, Conway JA, Lewis DD.
Journal: JAVMA

Case Description-A 10-year-old spayed female Jack Russell Terrier and a 7-year-old neutered male mixed-breed dog were evaluated because of acute, progressive, unilateral forelimb lameness associated with signs of pain and turgid antebrachial swelling. Clinical Findings-For either dog, there were no salient pathological or diagnostic imaging abnormalities. A diagnosis of compartment syndrome was confirmed on the basis of high caudal antebrachial compartmental pressure in the affected forelimb. Treatment and Outcome-Both dogs underwent surgical exploration of the affected forelimb.