Stem cells

Authors: Leah F. Raheja, Larry D. Galuppo, Jeanne Bowers-Lepore, Joseph P. Dowd, Fern Tablin, Clare E. Yellowley
Journal: Journal of Equine Veterinary Science

The objective of this study was to describe the use, and outcome, of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in the treatment of equine articular cartilage defects of the medial femoral condyle. A 4-year-old Thoroughbred gelding (n = 1) with bilateral stifle athroscopy was found to have bilateral articular cartilage fissure defects of the medial femoral condyles with concurrent cranial cruciate ligament injury. Bone marrow derived MSCs were isolated, expanded, and suspended in a partially autologous fibrin glue.

Authors: Leah F. Raheja, Larry D. Galuppo, Jeanne Bowers-Lepore, Joseph P. Dowd, Fern Tablin, Clare E. Yellowley
Journal: Journal of Equine Veterinary Science

The objective of this study was to describe the use, and outcome, of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in the treatment of equine articular cartilage defects of the medial femoral condyle. A 4-year-old Thoroughbred gelding (n = 1) with bilateral stifle athroscopy was found to have bilateral articular cartilage fissure defects of the medial femoral condyles with concurrent cranial cruciate ligament injury. Bone marrow derived MSCs were isolated, expanded, and suspended in a partially autologous fibrin glue.

Authors: J. R. Field (1), M. McGee (2), R. Stanley (1), G. Ruthenbeck, T. Papadimitrakis, A. Zannettino, S. Gronthos, S. Itescu
Journal: Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology

Introduction: Synthetic void-fillers offer an alternative to autograft or allograft bone in the repair of segmental defects. However, the reparative process is delayed as only osteoconductive elements are present. The inclusion of pluripotential cells may resolve this limitation, and the use of allogeneic tissue provides the opportunity for an off-the-shelf remedy. The current study evaluated the utilisation of mesenchymal precursor cells (MPC) for the repair of an ovine critical-size tibial segmental defect.

Category: Ruminant - Stem cells
Authors: Nakia D. Spencer BS, MS, Jeffrey M. Gimble MD, PhD, Mandi J. Lopez DVM, MS, PhD, Diplomate ACVS
Journal: Veterinary Surgery

Adult mesenchymal stromal cells are plastic-adherent cells that are self-renewing and have the capacity to differentiate into various tissue specific lineages. Stromal cells were initially discovered over 100 years ago and substantial insight into stromal cell identification, isolation, characterization, and differentiation has been made, including efforts to elucidate the factors involved in stromal cell differentiation. Stromal cells have immune privilege and thus are attractive candidates for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications.

Category: Equine - Stem cells
Authors: Armando de Mattos Carvalho MSc; Ana Liz Garcia Alves PhD;Patrícia Galvão Gomes de Oliveira MSc;Luis Emiliano Cisneros Álvarez MSc; Renée Laufer Amorim PhD;Carlos Alberto Hussni PhD and Elenice Deffune PhD
Journal: Journal of Equine Veterinary Science

Superficial digital flexor tendon lesion is an important cause of lameness in equine athletes. Although numerous treatments have been described, few are effective at promoting significant improvement in the quality of the extracellular matrix. Therefore, great potential remains for recurrence and in certain cases, an abrupt end to the horse’s athletic career. Recently, several experiments have focused on the therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in cases of tendon lesions.

Category: Equine - Stem cells - Tendon
Authors: Benjamin J. Ahern, BVSc Thomas P. Schaer, VMD Shawn P. Terkhorn, PhD Karen V. Jackson, BVSc Nicola J. Mason, PhD Kurt D. Hankenson, DVM, PhD
Journal: American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective—To evaluate effects of apheresis on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and compare those MSCs with MSCs obtained from adipose tissue or bone marrow (BM).

Sample Population—Samples obtained from 6 adult horses.

Category: Equine - Stem cells
Authors: Chrisoula A. Toupadakis, BAS; Alice Wong, PhD; Damian C. Genetos, PhD; Whitney K. Cheung, BS; Dori L. Borjesson, DVM, PhD; Gregory L. Ferraro, DVM; Lawrence D. Galuppo, DVM; J. Kent Leach, PhD; Sean D. Owens, DVM; Clare E. Yellowley; PhD
Journal: American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective—To determine the optimal osteogenic source of equine mesenchymal stem cells (eMSCs) and optimize collection of and expansion conditions for those cells.

Animals—10 adult Quarter Horses and 8 newborn Thoroughbred foals.

Procedures—eMSCs were isolated from bone marrow (BM), adipose tissue, and umbilical cord blood and tissue, and the osteogenic potential of each type was assessed. Effects of anatomic site, aspiration volume, and serum type on eMSC yield from BM were investigated.

Category: Bone - Equine - Stem cells
Authors: Julian Braun, MS; Anita Hack, MTA; Michaela Weis-Klemm, MS; Sabine Conrad, MTA Sabrina Treml, MTA; Konrad Kohler, PhD; Ulrich Walliser, DVM; Thomas Skutella, MD; Wilhelm K. Aicher, PhD
Journal: American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective—To evaluate the proliferative behavior, telomere length, immunophenotype, and differentiation capacity of equine adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs).

Animals—6 adult racing horses treated for articular Injury but otherwise healthy

Category: Equine - Stem cells
Authors: D. J. GUEST, M. R. W. SMITH, W. R. ALLEN
Journal: Equine Veterinary Journal

Reasons for performing study: Injury to the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) is common in racing and sport horses and poor tendon regeneration leads to high reinjury rates. Autologous mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are being used clinically to improve tendon regeneration but they have some practical limitations. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) may overcome these limitations but their fate following injection into the damaged SDFT is unknown.

Objective: To inject MSCs and ESCs into distinct areas of damage in the SDFT and monitor their survival over a 3 month period.

Authors: C. BOURZAC, L. C. SMITH, P. VINCENT, G. BEAUCHAMP, J.-P. LAVOIE, S. LAVERTY
Journal: Equine Veterinary Journal

Reason for performing the study: There is a need to assess and standardise equine bone marrow (BM) mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) isolation protocols in order to permit valid comparisons between therapeutic trials at different sites.

Objective: To compare 3 protocols of equine BM MSC isolation: adherence to a plastic culture dish (Classic) and 2 gradient density separation protocols (Percoll and Ficoll).

Category: Equine - Stem cells