This article provides an overview of the US Food and Drug Administration's current and potential regulation of veterinary regenerative medicine and the various products used in the practice. This article also discusses several of the potential enforcement risks associated with the commercialization of such therapies and products and offers the reader strategies for mitigating those risks.
Evidence-based medicine (EBM) refers to the conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence from research for the care of an individual patient. Central to the adoption of EBM is both producing and identifying the best possible evidence for a particular intervention or therapy.
Several cell-based therapeutic options to treat musculoskeletal injuries in horses are commercially available. The current literature supports the use of cell-based therapies to treat equine musculoskeletal injuries. Researchers continue to search for more effective cell-based therapies to provide practitioners with optimal treatment tools for musculoskeletal injuries in horses. Cell-based therapies require specialized facilities and technical competencies that might not be available or economically justifiable in many private practices.
Joint disease is a major cause of wastage in performance horses. Arthritis can be challenging to treat because articular cartilage has little or no capacity for repair, therapeutic options are limited and are largely targeted at ameliorating clinical signs of joint disease. Cell-based therapies have potential to overcome the intrinsic constraints to articular cartilage repair. This article focuses on cell-based therapies for treatment of equine joint disease. Results from experimental model and human clinical studies are presented along with available data from equine studies.
This article provides an overview of the cellular and molecular events involved in bone repair and the current approaches to using stem cells as an adjunct to this process. The article emphasizes the key role of osteoprogenitor cells in the formation of bone and where the clinical applications of current research may lend themselves to large animal orthopaedics. The processes involved in osteogenic differentiation are presented and strategies for bone formation, including induction by osteogenic factors, bioscaffolds, and gene therapy, are reviewed.
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are derived from adult mesenchymal tissues and have the ability to undergo differentiation into bone, cartilage, and fat, and have therefore attracted great interest in regenerative medicine. Many isolation and culture methods have been described, making comparison between laboratories and quality-control protocols difficult. A uniform protocol to characterize equine MSC has recently been proposed, aiming to introduce consistency across the equine stem cell research field.
This article provides an overview of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) biology. In the first section, the characteristics that are routinely used to define MSCs—adherence, proliferation, multi-lineage potential, and “cluster of differentiation” marker profiles—are discussed. In the second section, the major tissues and body fluids that are used as sources for equine MSCs are presented, along with the comparative biologic activities of MSCs from specific locations.
The field of regenerative medicine research is rapidly expanding. One area of interest to equine researchers is the possibility of isolating or generating pluripotent cells, capable of producing differentiated cell types derived from all 3 primary germ layers. Reports of equine embryonic stem-like (ES) cell isolation can be found in the literature. Other groups are working to produce equine-induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells.
Objective: To investigate the osteogenic differentiation potential of equine umbilical cord blood-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (CB-MSC) within coralline hydroxyapatite scaffolds cultured in osteogenic induction culture medium. Methods: Scaffolds seeded with equine CB-MSC were cultured in cell expansion culture medium (control) or osteogenic induction medium (treatment). Cell viability and distribution were confirmed by the MTT cell viability assay and DAPI nuclear fluorescence staining, respectively.
Reasons for performing study: Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy for orthopaedic disease is being used with increasing frequency; there is a need to define a safe, reliable and effective technique for the recovery of MSCs from the sternum of the horse.
Objectives: To describe an optimised safe technique for obtaining bone marrow-derived MSCs from the sternum of the Thoroughbred horse.