Stifle

TPLO seems more effective than TTA at restoring craniocaudal stability of the stifle.
The qualitative analysis of trial-averaged EMG data in this small population supports a relationship between neuromuscular function and induced CCL injury leading to rupture.
These results suggest that PL in puppies is primarily influenced by genetics, especially in Toy Poodles.
Poor blood supply to the core region could be an important underlying condition for spontaneous degeneration of the CCL in at-risk dogs.
The TPA can be successfully measured with up to 30° of internal and external tibial rotation in CrCL-deficient stifles with no osteoarthritic changes.