Sport Medicine

Authors: JAMES L. COOK, DVM, PhD, Diplomate ACVS 1 and CRISTI R. COOK, DVM, MS, Diplomate ACVR 1
Journal: Vet Surg

Objective—Characterize clinical findings and outcomes in dogs with forelimb lameness.
Study Design—Prospective case series.
Animals—Dogs (n=19) with forelimb lameness.
Methods—Dogs were included when lameness was attributed to shoulder and/or elbow pathology with informed consent for bilateral shoulder and elbow arthroscopy. Historical, clinical examination and diagnostic imaging findings were recorded. Localization of lameness was determined and subjective arthroscopic assessment of shoulders and elbows performed. Outcomes were subjectively assessed by owner survey.

Authors: Arnault F, Dembour T, Gallois Bride H, Chancrin JL.
Journal: VCOT

A five-month-old, male, 16 kg, mixed breed dog was presented for an acute non-weight bearing lameness of the right hind limb. A subtotal avulsion of the quadriceps tendon at its patellar insertion was diagnosed through radiography and ultrasonography. Two nylon sutures secured with a stainless steel crimp were placed in a locking loop pattern in the quadriceps tendon and through a transverse 2.7 mm drill-hole in the patella. No external coaptation was used postoperatively. A full functional recovery was observed, and was followed for one year postoperatively.

Authors: McCartney WT, Garvan CB.
Journal: VCOT

OBJECTIVES: To report on a new surgical approach to scapular neck fractures. METHODS: A combined prospective and retrospective study of eight dogs that had sustained a fracture of the scapular neck between 1992 and 2005 was performed. All eight dogs had an internal fixation using a T plate through a muscle separation approach. Retraction of the supraspinatus from the deltoideus and infraspinatus allows an adequate surgical window to enable plating of the scapular neck. RESULTS: Sixty-two percent had an excellent outcome without any lameness or stiffness detected.

Journal: Vet Surg

ABSTRACT Objective—To evaluate the diagnostic potential of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compared with a reference standard, arthroscopic and/or open surgery, in dogs with soft tissue shoulder pathology. Study Design—Retrospective study. Animals—Dogs (n=21). Methods—Magnetic resonance (MR) images were retrospectively evaluated in 21 dogs that had surgically identified soft tissue shoulder pathology.

Authors: Cannon MS, Puchalski SM.
Journal: Vet Radiol Ultrasound

The aim of this study was to describe the normal ultrasonographic appearance of the iliopsoas muscle and related landmarks. Hind limbs of five dog cadavers with no history of lameness were evaluated. The origin and mid-body of the psoas major and the common insertion of the iliacus and psoas major on the lesser trochanter of the femur were identified and evaluated. New methylene blue was injected under ultrasonographic guidance at the three sites. Dissection was performed to confirm placement of the dye.

Authors: Ragetly CA, Griffon DJ, Thomas JE, Mostafa AA, Schaeffer DJ, Pijanowski GJ, Hsiao-Wecksler ET.
Journal: AJVR

OBJECTIVE: To determine mass, center of mass (COM), and moment of inertia (ie, body segment parameters [BSPs]) of hind limb segments by use of a noninvasive method based on computerized tomography (CT) in Labrador Retrievers with and without cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) disease and to provide regression equations to estimate BSPs of normal, CCL-deficient, and contralateral hind limbs. ANIMALS: 14 clinically normal and 10 CCL-deficient Labrador Retrievers. PROCEDURES: Bone, muscle, and fat areas were identified via CT.

Authors: Byron CR, Stewart MC, Stewart AA, Pondenis HC.
Journal: AJVR

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of glucosamine on equine articular chondrocytes and synoviocytes at concentrations clinically relevant to serum and synovial fluid concentrations. SAMPLE POPULATION: Articular cartilage and synovium with normal gross appearance from metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal joints of 8 horses (1 to 10 years of age). PROCEDURES: In vitro chondrocyte and synoviocyte cell cultures from 8 horses were treated with glucosamine (0.1 to 20 microg/mL) with or without interleukin-1 (IL-1; 10 ng/mL) for 48 hours.

Authors: Kim J, Rietdyk S, Breur GJ.
Journal: AJVR

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypotheses that kinematic data of the sagittal motion of canine hind limbs during walking obtained with a 2-dimensional (2-D) system correlate well with those obtained with a 3-dimensional (3-D) system and that the data obtained with the 2-D system are repeatable. ANIMALS: 6 adult dogs with no evidence of lameness. PROCEDURES: Hind limb motions of 6 walking dogs were recorded via 2-D video and 3-D optoelectric systems simultaneously.

Authors: Pucheu B, Duhautois B.
Journal: VCOT

This study evaluates 76 cases of shoulder instability in dogs, functional outcome after treatment, and the effectiveness of medial biceps tendon transposition using a metallic staple. Clinical examinations of the shoulder were performed and radiographs were taken. Conservative treatment or surgery (biceps tendon transposition or arthrodesis) was then opted for on the basis of type of instability, associated lesions and dog (age, weight, behaviour). Long-term functional outcome was categorized as 'excellent', 'good', 'average' or 'poor'.

Authors: Gibson TW, Moens NM, Runciman RJ, Holmberg DL, Monteith GM.
Journal: VCOT

The purpose of this study was to determine the biomechanical properties of feline long bone by testing cadaver bone from mature cats in compression, three-point bending, notch sensitivity and screw pull-out strength. The determination of these properties is of clinical relevance with regard to the forces resulting in long bone fractures in cats as well as the behaviour and failure mode of surgical implants utilized for fracture stabilization and repair in the cat.