Sport Medicine

Authors: Cuddy LC, Lewis DD, Kim SE, Conrad BP, Banks SA, Horodyski M, Fitzpatrick N, Pozzi A.
Journal: Vet Surg

To evaluate the effects of antebrachial rotation at 3 elbow flexion angles on contact mechanics and 3-dimensional (3D) alignment of normal dog elbows.
Ex vivo biomechanical study.
Unpaired thoracic limbs from 18 dogs (mean ± SD weight, 27 ± 4 kg).

Authors: Angle TC, Gillette RL, Weimar WH.
Journal: VCOT

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to quantify and determine the degree to which dogs experience negative displacement of the paw during movement initiation on natural surfaces, the frequency of that displacement, and whether or not the negative displacement could yield injuries. Methods: Seven retired racing Greyhound dogs were selected to participate in sprint starts on two natural (non-vegetated and vegetated) surfaces. Kinematic analysis was conducted to quantify the displacements.

Authors: Bockstahler BA, Prickler B, Lewy E, Holler PJ, Vobornik A, Peham C.
Journal: AJVR

Objective-To assess joint kinematics in dogs with osteoarthritis of the hip joints during walking up an incline or down a decline and over low obstacles and to compare findings with data for nonlame dogs. Animals-10 dogs with osteoarthritis of the hip joints (mean ± SD age, 6.95 ± 3.17 years; mean body weight, 34.33 ± 13.58 kg) and 8 nonlame dogs (3.4 ± 2.0 years; 23.6 ± 4.6 kg). Procedures-Reflective markers located on the limbs and high-speed cameras were used to record joint kinematics during walking up an incline or down a decline and over low obstacles.

Authors: Ragetly CA, Griffon DJ, Hsu MK, Klump LM, Hsiao-Wecksler ET.
Journal: AJVR

Objective-To identify gait characteristics during trotting on a treadmill in nonlame Labrador Retrievers presumed predisposed or not predisposed to cranial cruciate ligament disease (CCLD). Animals-Clinically normal Labrador Retrievers presumed predisposed (n = 10) or not predisposed (7) to CCLD. Procedures-The right hind limb of each dog was classified by use of a predictive score equation that combined tibial plateau angle and femoral anteversion angle as presumed predisposed (high score [> -1.5]) or not predisposed (low score [≤ -1.5]) to CCLD.

Authors: Kisiel AH, McDuffee LA, Masaoud E, Bailey TR, Esparza Gonzalez BP, Nino-Fong R.
Journal: AJVR

Objective-To isolate and characterize mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from canine muscle and periosteum and compare proliferative capacities of bone marrow-, adipose tissue-, muscle-, and periosteum-derived MSCs (BMSCs, AMSCs, MMSCs, and PMSCs, respectively). Sample-7 canine cadavers. Procedures-MSCs were characterized on the basis of morphology, immunofluorescence of MSC-associated cell surface markers, and expression of pluripotency-associated transcription factors.

Authors: Sharp B.
Journal: J Feline Med Surg

Practical relevance: Physiotherapy is highly valued within human medicine and relatively well established for canine patients. Despite a popular misconception that feline patients will not cooperate with such treatment, physiotherapy is now increasingly being performed with cats. With cat ownership increasing in many countries, and an emergence of specialist physiotherapy practitioners, there is demand for effective postoperative and post-injury rehabilitation for any cat with compromised physical function due to injury, surgery or disease.

Authors: Sharp B.
Journal: J Feline Med Surg

Practical relevance: There is an increasing demand for effective postoperative and post-injury rehabilitation for any cat with compromised physical function due to injury, surgery or disease. Clinical challenges: The design of a suitable rehabilitation programme that will assist the recovery process, as well as ensure the return of neuromusculoskeletal control to the highest levels of function possible, requires a good understanding of feline behaviour, accurate assessment of the cat's condition and the correct implementation of a range of physiotherapeutic modalities.

Authors: Devasconcellos P, Balla VK, Bose S, Fugazzi R, Dernell WS, Bandyopadhyay A.
Journal: VCOT

Objectives: To design, manufacture and analyze custom implants with functional gradation in macrostructure for attachment of amputation prostheses. Methods: The external shape of the implant was designed by extracting geometrical data of canine cadavers from computed tomography (CT) scans to suit the bone cavity. Three generations of implant designs were developed and were optimized with the help of fit/fill and mechanical performance of implant-cadaver bone assembly using CT analysis and compression testing, respectively.

Authors: Kaijima M, Foutz TL, McClendon RW, Budsberg SC.
Journal: AJVR

Objective-To evaluate the accuracy of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for use in predicting subjective diagnostic scores of lameness with variables determined from ground reaction force (GRF) data. Animals-21 adult mixed-breed dogs. Procedures-The left cranial cruciate ligament of each dog was transected to induce osteoarthritis of the stifle joint as part of another study. Lameness scores were assigned and GRF data were collected 2 times before and 5 times after ligament transection. Inputs and the output for each ANN were GRF variables and a lameness score, respectively.

Authors: Hittmair KM, Groessl V, Mayrhofer E.
Journal: Vet Radiol Ultrasound

Stenosing tenosynovitis of the abductor pollicis longus muscle causes chronic front limb lameness in dogs. The lesion, similar to de Quervain's tenosynovitis in people, is caused by repetitive movements of the carpus. Thirty dogs with front limb lameness, painful carpal flexion, and a firm soft tissue swelling medial to the carpus were examined prospectively. Seven dogs had bilateral abductor pollicis longus tenosynovitis.