Distal Extremities

Authors: Choate CJ, Arnold GA.
Journal: VCOT

A 10-month-old Yorkshire Terrier was referred for evaluation of an intermittent right thoracic limb lameness that acutely progressed to non-weight-bearing. A diagnosis of bilateral bone cysts of the humeral condyles with a pathologic fracture of the lateral aspect of the right humeral condyle was given following radiographic and histopathologic examination. Bilateral pathology necessitated consideration of treatment modalities other than amputation of the limb, as previously reported. Arthrodesis of the right elbow using a 2.0 mm locking bone plate was performed.

Authors: Kulendra E, Grierson J, Okushima S, Cariou M, House A.
Journal: VCOT

The medical records of all cats with tarsocrural joint instability that were treated between June 2002 and December 2008 at the Royal Veterinary College were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 32 cats were identified. Information gathered included signalment, type of injury (subluxation or luxation), concurrent fractures, presence of soft tissue wounds, transarticular external skeletal fixation (TESF) type, configuration of TESF (number of pins proximal and distal to the joint), duration of hospitalisation, duration of TESF prior to removal, complications and cost.

Authors: Fitzwater KL, Marcellin-Little DJ, Harrysson OL, Osborne JA, Poindexter EC.
Journal: AJVR

Objective-To assess the effect of computed tomography (CT) scan protocols (radiation amounts) and fabrication methods on biomodel accuracy and variability. Sample-Cadaveric femur of a Basset Hound. Procedures-Retroreconstructions (n = 158) were performed of 16 original scans and were visually inspected to select 17 scans to be used for biomodel fabrication. Biomodels of the 17 scans were made in triplicate by use of 3 freeform fabrication processes (stereolithography, fused deposition modeling, and 3-D printing) for 153 models.

Authors: Gauthier CM, Conrad BP, Lewis DD, Pozzi A.
Journal: AJVR

Objective-To compare in vitro axial compression, abaxial compression, and torsional stiffnesses of intact and plated radii from small- and large-breed dogs. Sample-Radii from 18 small-breed and 9 large-breed skeletally mature dogs. Procedures-3 groups were tested: large-breed dog radii plated with 3.5-mm limited-contact dynamic compression plates (LCDCPs), small-breed dog radii plated with 2.0-mm dynamic compression plates (DCPs), and small-breed dog radii plated with 2.0/2.7-mm cut-to-length plates (CTLPs).

Authors: Streubel R, Makara M, Guerrero T.
Journal: VCOT

The medical records of three cats that were presented with severe carpal injury requiring radiocarpal arthrodesis were reviewed. Medial plating using the Compact 2.0 LOCK™ systema was performed in all three cases. Although screw positioning may be difficult because of the large distance between the holes of the plate and the relatively large size of screws, plate loosening or metacarpal fractures did not occur. Long-term clinical and radiographic follow-up (6 months to 4.5 years) revealed excellent outcome in two cats. In the third cat, the radiocarpal joint did not undergo complete fusion.

Authors: Piras L, Cappellari F, Peirone B, Ferretti A.
Journal: VCOT

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of circular external skeletal fixation (CESF) in treating fractures of the distal radius and ulna in toy breed dogs, and to document the type and frequency of complications associated with this technique. Methods: The medical records of small breed dogs with fractures of the distal radius and ulna admitted to the University of Turin and to the Clinica Ferretti between 2002 and 2009 were retrospectively reviewed.

Authors: Szabo D, Ryan T, Scott HW.
Journal: VCOT

Carpal canal syndrome, or carpal tunnel syndrome, is the most common entrapment neuropathy in humans and is caused by compression of the median nerve as it courses through the carpal canal. A similar condition has been reported in horses, however there have not been any reported cases of a dog showing lameness secondary to compression within the carpal canal. This report describes the case of a dog exhibiting lameness secondary to a lipoma within the carpal canal. Lameness improved after surgical removal of the mass.

Authors: Might KR, Hanzlik KA, Case JB, Duncan CG, Egger EL, Rooney MB, Duerr FM.
Journal: Vet Surg

Objective: To determine the effect of proximal ulnar osteotomy (PUO), distal ulnar osteotomy (DUO), and DUO with release of the interosseous ligament (DOLR) on displacement of the proximal ulna at the radioulnar joint. Study Design: Experimental mechanical study. Sample Population: Cadaveric, skeletally mature canine thoracic limb pairs (n=11). Methods: Thoracic limbs disarticulated at the elbow were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: (A) limbs were tested with no treatment (NOTX), then with PUO; (B) limbs were tested with DUO followed by DOLR.

Authors: Meeson RL, Davidson C, Arthurs GI.
Journal: VCOT

Objectives: Casts applied for orthopaedic conditions can result in soft-tissue injuries. The purpose of our study was to describe the nature and prevalence of such complications. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of medical records of dogs and cats that had a cast placed for an orthopaedic condition between October 2003 and May 2009. The data were analysed and categorised. Results: Of the 60 animals that had a cast placed, 63% developed a soft-tissue injury (60% mild, 20% moderate and 20% severe).

Authors: Hodge SC, Degner D, Walshaw R, Teunissen B.
Journal: JAAHA

The objective of this retrospective study was to compare vascularized free or roll-in ulnar bone grafts for limb-sparing surgery in dogs with radial osteosarcoma with the cortical allograft, metal endoprosthesis, or distraction osteogenesis techniques. Overall, the ulnar graft techniques used in this study demonstrated excellent healing properties. Complications included recurrence of the tumor in 25% (2/8) of the dogs, metastasis in 50% (4/8) of the dogs, implant loosening in 37.5% (3/8) of the dogs, implant failure in 12.5% (1/8) of the dogs, and infection in 62.5% (5/8) of the dogs.