Distal Extremities

Authors: Souza TF, Andrade AL, Ferrreira GT, Sakamoto SS, Albuquerque VB, Bonfim SR, Luvizotto MC, Louzada MJ.
Journal: VCOT

Objectives: To evaluate bone healing in an experimental radial ostectomy in dogs treated with autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP), through histological, densitometric, radiographic studies, as well as expression of growth factors in the ostectomy gap. Methods: Twenty-one dogs were randomly divided into either a control or a PRP group. All underwent unilateral ostectomy of the radius to generate a gap of 2.0 mm, that was stabilized with external skeletal fixation. The ostectomy gap was either filled with PRP or left empty as a control.

Authors: Woods S, Wallace RJ, Mosley JR.
Journal: VCOT

Objectives: Since external coaptation is applied clinically to prevent plate failure during healing in canine pancarpal arthrodesis (PCA), we tested the hypothesis that external coaptation does not significantly reduce plate strain in an experimental ex vivo model of canine PCA. Methods: Ten thoracic limbs from healthy Greyhounds euthanatized for reasons un- related to the study were harvested and the carpus was stabilised with a dorsally applied 2.7/3.5 mm hybrid PCA plate.

Authors: Pozzi A, Risselada M, Winter MD.
Journal: JAVMA

Objective-To evaluate fracture healing after minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) or open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of coexisting radius and ulna fractures in dogs via ultrasonography and radiography. Design-Prospective cohort study. Animals-16 dogs with radius-ulna fractures that underwent MIPO (n = 9; 2 dogs were subsequently not included in the analyses because of incomplete follow-up information) or ORIF (7). Procedures-Dogs in the 2 treatment groups were matched by age, body weight, and configuration of the fractures.

Authors: Altunatmaz K, Ozsoy S, Mutlu Z, Devecioglu Y, Guzel O.
Journal: VCOT

Intramedullary fully-threaded pins were manufactured from an alloy of titanium, aluminium and vanadium in a fully-threaded style. Pins were produced in various diameters, ranging from 4 mm to 11 mm. Pin lengths varied from 5 cm to 22 cm. The proximal end of the pins was designed to fit into a hexagonal screwdriver, while the distal end was slightly tapered to allow for ease of entry into cancellous bone.

Authors: Devasconcellos P, Balla VK, Bose S, Fugazzi R, Dernell WS, Bandyopadhyay A.
Journal: VCOT

Objectives: To design, manufacture and analyze custom implants with functional gradation in macrostructure for attachment of amputation prostheses. Methods: The external shape of the implant was designed by extracting geometrical data of canine cadavers from computed tomography (CT) scans to suit the bone cavity. Three generations of implant designs were developed and were optimized with the help of fit/fill and mechanical performance of implant-cadaver bone assembly using CT analysis and compression testing, respectively.

Authors: 1. Luciano Pisoni 2. Filippo Cinti 3. Sara Del Magno 4. Monika Joechler
Journal: J Feline Med Surg

Hemimelia is a congenital disease of complete or partial absence of one or more bones. The most important hypothesis is that radial agenesis is a consequence of neural crest injury. Treatment selection depends on the degree of the deformity and the reduction of limb function. This report describes a case of bilateral radial hemimelia and multiple malformations in a kitten aged 2 months treated conservatively with splint bandage, until bone maturity. The re-evaluation was performed 4 years later.

Authors: Choate C, Lewis D, Kim S, Sereda C.
Journal: Aust Vet J

Background   Hinged circular external skeletal fixator constructs are used to perform sequential correction of angular limb deformities, often with resultant limb segment lengthening, via distraction osteogenesis. Although there are several reports describing the use of these constructs for correction of antebrachial deformities in dogs, there is little information regarding their use on other limb segments. This report describes the use of hinged circular fixator constructs for the correction of acquired crural deformities in three skeletally immature dogs.

Authors: Petazzoni M, Nicetto T, Vezzoni A, Piras A, Palmer R.
Journal: VCOT

Objectives: To describe the surgical treatment of pes varus in Dachshund dogs by medial opening wedge osteotomy of the distal tibia stabilized with a locking plate system and to retrospectively report the clinical and radiographic outcomes. Materials and methods: Lameness in nine limbs of seven Dachshund dogs with pes varus deformity was treated with corrective osteotomy at or near the centre of rotation of angulation as defined by the intersection of the proximal and distal mechanical axes determined on caudo-cranial radiographs.

Authors: Macrì F, Lanteri G, Rapisarda G, Marino F.
Journal: J Feline Med Surg

Congenital limb deformities are rarely reported in the cat. The macroscopic and radiographic features of aphalangia are described in a 2-month-old male kitten showing a shortened limb that ended, at the level of the carpus, in a stump without digits. A nail was present at the level of the first phalanx and on the palmar surface only two footpads were present. The radiographs showed an absence of phalanges. The first metacarpal and the proximal and distal phalanges of digit 1 were present. The deformed metacarpal bones were reduced in length; the carpal bones were incompletely ossified.

Authors: Goldfinch N, Argyle D.
Journal: J Feline Med Surg

Practical relevance Feline 'lung-digit syndrome' describes an unusual pattern of metastasis that is seen with various types of primary lung tumours, particularly bronchial and bronchioalveolar adenocarcinoma. Tumour metastases are found at atypical sites, notably the distal phalanges of the limbs; the weightbearing digits are most frequently affected, and multiple-digit and multiple-limb involvement is common. Often primary lung tumours in cats are not detected because of clinical signs referable to the primary tumour; rather, many cases present with signs referable to distant metastases.