Treatment

Authors: J. CAYZER, D. HEDDERLEY, S. GRAY
Journal: Equine Veterinary Journal

Reasons for performing study: Lyophilised products from green-lipped mussel (Perna canaliculus[LPPC]) are used to orally treat horses with osteoarthritis (OA). However, no randomised, controlled or double-blinded studies on the efficacy of this treatment in horses have been reported to date.

Objective: To investigate the effects of a unique LPPC (Biolane)1 in improving clinical signs of OA in the fetlock.

Authors: C. Wayne McIlwraith, BVSc, PhD, DSc; David D. Frisbie, DVM, PhD; Christopher E. Kawcak, DVM, PhD
Journal: American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective—To assess clinical, radiographic, histologic, and biochemical effects of sodium pentosan polysulfate (NaPPS) administered IM for treatment of experimentally induced osteoarthritis in horses.

Animals—18 horses.

Authors: B. DUNKEL, D. M. BOLT, R. K. SMITH, F. M. CUNNINGHAM
Journal: Equine Veterinary Journal

Reasons for performing the study: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is increasingly used for treatment of orthopaedic injuries. However, the effects of different stimuli on the release pattern of regenerative and proinflammatory factors from equine platelets are largely unknown and an optimal treatment protocol remains to be established. Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify a stimulus that enhanced release of histopromotive factors (platelet-derived growth factor BB [PDGF] and transforming growth factor 1β[TGF]) without causing concurrent release of a proinflammatory mediator (CCL5).

Authors: James L. Carmalt, MA, VetMB, MVetSC, DABVP, DACVS; Chris D. Bell, DVM, MVetSC, DACVS; Luca Panizzi, DVM, MVetSC, DACVS; Ryan R. E. Wolker, DVM, MVetSC, DACVS; Joel L. Lanovaz, PhD; José L. Bracamonte, DVM, DVSC, DACVS; David G. Wilson, DVM, DACVS
Journal: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective—To assess the safety and efficacy of alcohol-facilitated ankylosis of the distal intertarsal (DIT) and tarsometatarsal (TMT) joints in horses with osteoarthritis (bone spavin).

Design—Prospective clinical trial.

Animals—21 horses with DIT or TMT joint-associated hind limb lameness and 5 nonlame horses.

Authors: Scott H.R. Edwards
Journal: The Veterinary Journal

The rationale behind developing sustained release microsphere formulations of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) administered via the intra-articular (IA) route is to minimise the systemic bioavailability and attendant side-effects associated with oral drug administration. Overall dose is reduced whilst therapeutic benefit within the joint is maintained. The potential benefits of IA therapy for osteoarthritis (OA) are not achieved using currently available medications and delivery vehicles due to the rapid clearance of therapeutic substances from the synovial space.

Category: Equine - Lameness - Treatment
Authors: Jamie Textor
Journal: Veterinary Clinics of North America: Equine Practice

Autologous biologic therapies such as platelet-rich plasma and autologous conditioned serum are in widespread clinical use to treat musculoskeletal pathology in horses. These substances exert a therapeutic effect through the provision of either anabolic or anti-catabolic factors, or a combination of both. This article discusses the history, experimental and clinical literature, and currently accepted preparation and usage strategies for both platelet-rich plasma and autologous conditioned serum.

Category: Equine - Treatment
Authors: Lawrence R. Soma, VMD; Cornelius E. Uboh, PhD; Yowen You, PhD; Fuyu Guan, PhD; Raymond C. Boston, PhD
Journal: American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective—To compare pharmacokinetics of triamcinolone acetonide (TA) following IV, intra-articular (IA), and IM administration and determine its effect on plasma concentrations of hydrocortisone and cortisone.

Animals—6 Thoroughbreds.

Procedures—TA (0.04 mg/kg) was administered IV, IM, or IA, and plasma TA, hydrocortisone, and cortisone concentrations were determined.

Category: Equine - Treatment
Authors: D. J. FERRIS, D. D. FRISBIE, C. W. McILWRAITH, C. E. KAWCAK
Journal: Equine Veterinary Journal

Reasons for performing study: Medications are frequently employed to treat intra-articular (IA) problems in the performance horse. Actual usage of the different IA medications in horses is not available. Objectives: To determine the most common usage of these medications, members of the American Association of Equine Practitioners (AAEP) were surveyed. Methods: An email link to an online survey was electronically sent to 6305 AAEP members and the responses tabulated and analysed with a logistic regression model. Results: A total of 831 survey responses were submitted and tabulated.

Category: Equine - Lameness - Treatment
Authors: T. H. HRAHA, K. M. DOREMUS, C. W. McILWRAITH, D. D. FRISBIE
Journal: Equine Veterinary Journal

Reasons for performing study: Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most prevalent and debilitating conditions affecting the horse. Autologous conditioned serum (ACS), commercially available as IRAP and IRAP II, is a recently developed treatment for OA in which plasma is prepared from venous blood by incubation with glass beads for 24 h. This product has been shown to increase anti-inflammatory cytokines and growth factors in human blood. However, data for equine ACS preparations are lacking.

Authors: Christopher E. Kawcak DVM, PhD, Dipl ACVS and C. Wayne McIlwraith BVSc, PhD, DSc, FRCVS, Dipl ACVS
Journal: Journal of Equine Veterinary Science

Synovial fluid white blood cell (WBC) count and total protein (TP) concentration were evaluated in the midcarpal joints of horses to not only determine the effects of needle aspiration, infusion with saline, and infusion with a combination of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine, hyaluronan, and sodium chondroitin sulfate (GHCS) at two different doses to evaluate the latter for safety, but to also provide information on saline injection as a control in joints. The midcarpal joints from 24 horses were used for this study.

Category: Equine - Lameness - Treatment