Tendon

Authors: El-Sayed A.A. El-Shafaey, Gamal I.A. Karrouf, Adel E.I. Zaghloul
Journal: Journal of Equine Veterinary Science

Little is known about using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in evaluating the healing properties of superficial digital flexor tenorrhaphy in equines. The present study was designed to carry out in vivo comparative evaluation of normal and repaired superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) in donkeys, based on MRI, ultrasonography, clinical and histopathological features.

Category: Equine - Imaging - MRI - Tendon - Ultrasound
Authors: Stuart A. Vallance, BVSc; Martin A. Vidal, BVSc, PhD; Mary Beth Whitcomb, DVM; Brian G. Murphy, DVM, PhD; Mathieu Spriet, DVM; Larry D. Galuppo, DVM
Journal: American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective—To evaluate use of a diode laser to induce tendinopathy in the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) of horses. Animals—4 equine cadavers and 5 adult horses. Procedures—Cadaveric SDFT samples were exposed to a diode laser at various energy settings to determine an appropriate energy for use in in vivo experiments; lesion size was assessed histologically. In vivo experiments involved laser energy induction of lesions in the SDFT (2 preliminary horses [0, 25, 75, and 87.5 J] and 3 study horses [0 and 125 J]) and assessment of lesions.

Category: Equine - Tendon
Authors: C. J. CANIGLIA, M. C. SCHRAMME and R. K. SMITH
Journal: Equine Veterinary Journal

Reasons for performing study: Collagen fibril size is decreased in repair tissue following tendon injury compared to normal tendon matrix in horses. Mesenchymal stem cells have been suggested to promote regeneration of tendon matrix rather than fibrotic repair following injury, although this concept remains unproven.

Category: Equine - Stem cells - Tendon
Authors: A. E. WATTS, A. J. NIXON, A. E. YEAGER and H. O. MOHAMMED
Journal: Equine Veterinary Journal

Reasons for performing study: A consistent and clinically relevant model for the induction of core lesions confined to the mid-metacarpal superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) has not been previously reported. Injection of bacterial collagenase is commonly used but often results in large, irregular and inconsistent lesions that disrupt the superficial tendon layers and epitenon.

Objective: To develop and evaluate a new injection technique for collagenase induction of SDFT injury.

Category: Equine - Tendon
Authors: F. DAVID, J. CADBY, G. BOSCH, P. BRAMA, R. VAN WEEREN and H. VAN SCHIE
Journal: Equine Veterinary Journal

Reasons for performing the study: Larger superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) injuries have a poorer prognosis than smaller lesions. During the inflammatory phase enlargement of the initial lesion is frequently noted, with biomechanical loading being recently proposed to play an important role.

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of lower limb cast immobilisation on tendon lesion propagation in an equine model of surgically induced SDFT injury.

Authors: R. J. M. REARDON, L. A. BODEN, D. J. MELLOR, S. LOVE, J. R. NEWTON, A. J. STIRK and T. D. H. PARKIN
Journal: Equine Veterinary Journal

Reasons for performing study: Superficial digital flexor (SDF) tendinopathy is a common injury in Thoroughbred horses racing over hurdles. Identification of risk factors may allow the introduction of measures to minimise the incidence of this injury.

Objective: To identify risk factors for SDF tendinopathy in Thoroughbred horses in hurdle races in the UK.

Authors: D. WHITLOCK, T. C. GARCIA, S. A. VALLANCE and S. M. STOVER
Journal: Equine Veterinary Journal

Reasons for performing study: The specific biomechanical circumstances that induce excessive superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) strain in horses are unknown.

Hypothesis: Carpal joint hyperextension during axial limb loading during the middle of stance disproportionately enhances SDFT strains compared to suspensory ligament (SL) strains.

Category: Equine - Tendon - Traumatology
Authors: Mathieu Spriet, Brian Murphy, Stuart A. Vallance, Martin A. Vidal, Mary Beth Whitcomb, Erik R. Wisner
Journal: Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound

Magic angle magnetic resonance (MR) imaging consists of imaging tendons at 55° to the magnetic field. In people, magic angle MR imaging is valuable for detection of chronic tendon lesions and allows calculation of tendon T1 values. Increased T1 values occur in people with chronic tendinopathy. The T1 values of normal equine tendons have been reported but there are no available data for abnormal equine tendons. Twelve limbs were studied.

Category: Equine - MRI - Tendon
Authors: P. C. Compston, R. J. Payne
Journal: Equine Veterinary Education

A variety of methods are described for managing distal limb flexural deformities in the foal, including intravenous oxytetracycline and splint or cast use. This case series describes a novel technique that creates an ‘active tension-extension splint’ by wiring the toe into a custom-made fibreglass splint and therefore into active extension. A dorsal fibreglass splint is made by halving a cast that is set around the affected leg with padding underneath it, so that it is sculpted to a more appropriate anatomical shape.

Authors: P. D. CLEGG
Journal: Equine Veterinary Journal

Tendon and ligament injuries continue to be one of the most frequent causes of orthopaedic injury and early retirement in the Thoroughbred racehorse. In the UK, the Horserace Betting Levy Board has invested considerable research funding in the last decade in order to investigate aspects of tendon epidemiology, biology and therapy, in order to decrease both the welfare and economic consequence of such injuries. This review summarises key aspects of this research effort and identifies specific research directions for the future.