Epidemiology

Authors: S. LYKKJEN, K. H. ROED, N. I. DOLVIK
Journal: Equine Veterinary Journal

Reasons for performing study: Developmental orthopaedic diseases (DOD) such as osteochondrosis (OC)/osteochondrosis dissecans (OCD), palmar/plantar osteochondral fragments (POF), ununited palmar/plantar eminences (UPE) and dorsoproximal first phalanx fragments are well recognised in the horse. Aetiopathogeneses are controversial and molecular genetic screening of DNA has recently been employed for their elucidation.

Authors: Bruno Carvalho Menarim, Vânia Maria Vasconcelos Machado, Luís Emiliano Cisneros Alvarez, Rodrigo Carneiro, Leandro Busch, Luiz Carlos Vulcano
Journal: Journal of Equine Veterinary Science

Barrel racing is one of the most popular uses of the American Quarter horse in North and South America. Although injury to the metacarpophalangeal joint frequently occurs in this sport, there is limited information describing the nature of these injuries. The aim of this study was to determine the most common radiographic abnormalities in barrel racing horses with lameness referable to the metacarpophalangeal joint. Lameness examinations were performed on 63 barrel racing horses. Those found to be lame were subjected to radiographic examination.

Authors: Woong Kim, PhD; Chris E. Kawcak, DVM, PhD; C. Wayne McIlwraith, BVSc, PhD; Elwyn C. Firth, BVSc, PhD; Neil D. Broom, PhD
Journal: American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective—To describe and measure histologic features of midcarpal joint cartilage defects in Thoroughbreds and evaluate the influence of early conditioning exercise on defect development.

Sample—24 midcarpal joints from twelve 18-month-old Thoroughbreds.

Authors: M. P. Weaver, BVMS, PhD, DrMedVet, DVR, MRCVS and L. Wilant, BVM&S, MRCVS
Journal: Veterinary Record

A postal survey of the owners of Clydesdale horses in the UK and USA was conducted to obtain information on tarsocrural effusion (‘bog spavin’) as an indicator of osteochondrosis from 935 horses. Additional information requested included details of how this condition was investigated and treated. The reported tarsocrural effusion incidence was 10 per cent. The majority of respondents believed the condition to be of concern to Clydesdale owners, but only a minority were aware of the implications of tarsocrural effusion, suggesting that owner education would be of benefit.

Category: Epidemiology - Equine
Authors: E. K. CONTINO, R. D. PARK, C. W. MC ILWRAITH
Journal: Equine Veterinary Journal

Reasons for performing study: There have been many studies that document radiographic findings in young Thoroughbred and Standardbred horses. No such studies have been performed in Quarter Horses.

Objective: To describe the prevalence of radiographic changes in the stifles, tarsi, carpi and fetlocks of young Quarter Horses intended for cutting.

Authors: K. R. OWEN, E. R. SINGER, P. D. CLEGG, J. L. IRELAND, G. L. PINCHBECK
Journal: Equine Veterinary Journal

Reasons for performing study: Traumatic injuries are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the horse and consequently pose a serious threat to horses' wellbeing. To date, there have been no published studies assessing the frequency of injuries in the general horse population of the UK.

Objectives: To obtain information regarding husbandry management strategies and injury prevalence in horses aged ≤15 years, with the aim of identifying predisposing risk factors for injury.

Authors: C. F. BOLWELL, C. W. ROGERS, N. P. FRENCH, E. C. FIRTH
Journal: Equine Veterinary Journal

Reasons for performing study: There is increasing evidence suggesting that early exercise in Thoroughbred racehorses may be beneficial to the development of the musculoskeletal system. At present, information on the exercise programmes and health problems of individual yearlings during a sales preparation is scant.

Objectives: To describe the exercise and health problems of Thoroughbred yearlings during preparation for sales, and to identify variations in exercise between and within farms.

Category: Epidemiology - Equine
Authors: S. R. REED, B. F. JACKSON, C. W. MC ILWRAITH, I. M. WRIGHT, R. PILSWORTH, S. KNAPP, J. L. N. WOOD, J. S. PRICE, K. L. P. VERHEYEN
Journal: Equine Veterinary Journal

Reasons for performing study: No large scale epidemiological studies have previously quantified the occurrence of carpal, metacarpo- and metatarsophalangeal (MCP/MTP) joint injuries in Thoroughbred racehorses.

Objectives: To develop an objective classification system for carpal and MCP/MTP joint injuries and estimate the incidence of these injuries in young Thoroughbreds in flat race training.

Category: Epidemiology - Equine
Authors: Andrea L. Beisser, BA; Scott McClure, DVM, PhD, DACVS; Chong Wang, PhD; Keith Soring, DVM; Rudy Garrison, DVM; Bryce Peckham, DVM
Journal: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective—To determine the incidence of and compare the types of catastrophic musculoskeletal injuries (CMIs) sustained in Thoroughbreds and Quarter Horses during racing at 3 Midwestern racetracks from 2000 to 2006.

Design—Retrospective cohort study.

Animals—139 Thoroughbred and 50 Quarter Horse racehorses euthanized because of CMIs.

Authors: L. JÖNSSON, G. DALIN, A. EGENVALL, A. NÄSHOLM, L. ROEPSTORFF, J. PHILIPSSON
Journal: Equine Veterinary Journal

Reasons for performing study: Disturbances in skeletal development, primarily osteochondrosis (OC) and palmar/plantar osseous fragments (POF), have been commonly reported as problems in young horses. However, there are few reports of such findings for epidemiological analyses or breeding purposes.

Objectives: To evaluate equine hospital data as a possible source of information for genetic evaluations by estimating prevalence and heritability of OC in the stifle, hock and fetlock joints and of POF in the fetlock.