An in vitro biomechanical investigation of an interlocking nail system developed for buffalo tibia

S. A. Bhat, H. P. Aithal, P. Kinjavdekar, Amarpal, M. M. S. Zama, P. C. Gope, A. M. Pawde, R. A. Ahmad, M. B. Gugjoo
January 2014
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology

Objective: The objectives of the study were to determine the mechanical properties of a customized buffalo interlocking nail (BIN), intact buffalo tibia, and ostectomized tibia stabilized with BIN in different configurations, as well as to assess the convenience of interlocking nailing in buffalo tibia. Materials and methods: The BIN (316L stainless steel, 12 mm diameter, 250 mm long, nine-hole solid nails with 10° proximal bend) alone was loaded in compression and three-point bending (n = 4 each); intact tibiae and ostectomized tibiae (of buffaloes aged 5–8 years, weighing 300–350 kg) stabilized with BIN using 4.9 mm standard or modified locking bolts (4 or 8) in different configurations were subjected to axial compression, cranio-caudal three-point bending and torsion (n = 4 each) using a universal testing machine. Mechanical parameters were determined from load-displacement curves and compared using Kruskal-Wallis test (p <0.05). Results: Intact tibiae were significantly stronger than BIN and bone-BIN constructs in all testing modes. The strength of fixation constructs with eight locking bolts was significantly more than with four bolts. Overall strength of fixation with modified locking bolts was better than standard bolts. Based on technical ease and biomechanical properties, cranio-caudal insertion of bolts into the bone was found better than medio-lateral insertion. Clinical significance: The eight bolt BIN-bone constructs could be useful to treat tibial fractures in large ruminants, especially buffaloes.