Titanium mesh osteosynthesis for the treatment of severely comminuted maxillofacial fractures in four dogs

Authors: 
R Vallefuoco, F Bird, I Gordo, H Brissot, C Fina
J Small Anim Pract. 2021 Jun 7. doi: 10.1111/jsap.13390.

Introduction: Major goals in maxillofacial fracture treatment include to restore the dental occlusion, stabilise the major skeletal supports, restore the contour of the face and achieve proper function and appearance of the face. Titanium is considered an optimal material for maxillofacial reconstruction due to its biocompatibility, high strength, minimal inflammatory reaction and minimal imaging artefact.

Objectives: To describe the clinical details, surgical technique, pre- and postoperative imaging and short- and long-term follow-up of severely comminuted maxillofacial fractures treated with titanium mesh and titanium screws in dogs.

Materials and methods: Retrospective short case series included four client-owned dogs with maxillofacial fractures. After appropriate medical stabilisation, preoperative CT examination of the head was obtained in all patients for evaluation of fracture configuration and surgical planning. The maxillofacial fractures were stabilised by titanium mesh osteosynthesis. Short- and long-term clinical and radiographic follow-ups were available for all dogs.

Results: Proper dental occlusion and reconstruction of the anatomic buttresses was achieved in all cases. All dogs recovered uneventfully from the surgery and no complications were recorded on the long-term follow-up up to 43 months. Occlusion was maintained in all dogs, as well as excellent cosmesis of the midface.

Clinical significance: Titanium mesh osteosynthesis can achieve sufficient rigidity and lead to uncomplicated healing of severely comminuted maxillofacial fractures. This internal fixation method can be considered a valuable option to treat maxillofacial fractures in particular in cases of large bone defect and midface reconstruction.