Three-dimensionally printed osteotomy and reaming guides for correction of a multiplanar femoral deformity stabilized with an interlocking nail in a dog

Logan M Scheuermann, Stanley E Kim
Vet Surg. 2024 May 6. doi: 10.1111/vsu.14099.

Objective: To describe the use of virtual surgical planning (VSP) and three-dimensionally (3D) printed surgical guides for corrective osteotomies stabilized with an interlocking nail in a dog with a multiplanar femoral deformity.

Study design: Case report.

Animals: An 8-year-old male neutered mixed breed dog weighing 44 kg.

Methods: A dog was presented for a right grade 3 lateral patellar luxation secondary to a multiplanar femoral deformity due to a suspected femoral malunion. A computed tomography (CT) scan was obtained to create virtual femoral models. Corrective osteotomies were simulated with VSP. Custom osteotomy guides and reaming guides were designed to facilitate the correction and the placement of an interlocking nail. The preoperative femoral model, virtually aligned femoral model, custom osteotomy guides, and reaming guides were 3D printed, sterilized, and utilized intraoperatively. A CT scan was performed postoperatively to assess femoral length and alignment.

Results: Custom osteotomy and reaming guides were used as intended by the VSP. Postoperative femoral length as well as frontal, sagittal, and axial plane alignment were within 0.7 mm, 2.2°, 0.5°, and 1.6°, respectively, of the virtually planned femoral model. Two months postoperatively, the dog was sound on visual gait examination, and the patella tracked in the trochlear groove throughout stifle range of motion and was unable to be manually luxated. Radiographs obtained 2 months postoperatively revealed static femoral alignment and implants. Both osteotomies were discernable with callus bridging.

Conclusion: Virtual surgical planning and custom osteotomy and reaming guides facilitated complex femoral corrective osteotomies and interlocking nail placement.