The purpose of this article is to provide a broad review of the literature related to the treatment of cartilage defects and degenerated cartilage in animals with some inferences to the treatment in humans. Methods range from the insertion of osteochondral tissue or cells to the application of radio frequency or insertion of scaffolds and growth factors alone or in combination. Debridement, microfracture, radio frequency, and chondrocyte implantation are all methods normally utilized when treating smaller articular cartilage defects. Scaffolds and mosaicplasty are examples of methods to treat larger defects. This review will cover all major treatment methods currently used to treat articular cartilage defects.
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology (VCOT)