Objective: The main aim of this study is to compare the impact of six proximal tibial osteotomies on the geometry and alignment of tibias with and without excessive tibial plateau angle (TPA).
Study design: Mediolateral radiographs of 30 canine tibias were divided into three groups (n = 10/group): moderate TPA (≤34 degrees), severe TPA (34.1-44 degrees) and extreme TPA (>44 degrees). Six proximal tibial osteotomies were simulated on each tibia using orthopaedic planning software: cranial closing wedge ostectomy (CCWO), modified CCWO (mCCWO), isosceles CCWO (iCCWO), neutral isosceles CCWO (niCCWO), tibial plateau levelling osteotomy with CCWO (TPLO/CCWO) and coplanar centre of rotation of angulation-based levelling osteotomy (coCBLO). All tibias were reduced to a standard target TPA. Pre- and postoperative measurements were obtained for each virtual correction. Compared outcome measures included tibial long axis shift (TLAS), cranial tibial tuberosity shift (cTTS), distal tibial tuberosity shift (dTTS), tibial shortening and osteotomy overlap.
Results: Across all TPA groups, TPLO/CCWO had the lowest mean TLAS (1.4 mm) and dTTS (6.8 mm); coCBLO had the largest TLAS (6.5 mm) and cTTS (13.1 mm); CCWO had the largest dTTS (29.5 mm). CCWO had the largest degree of tibial shortening of 6.5 mm, while mCCWO, niCCWO and coCBLO resulted in minimal tibial lengthening (1.8-3.0 mm). These trends were generally conserved across different TPA groups. All findings had a p-value less than 0.05.
Conclusion: mCCWO balances moderate alterations to tibial geometry while preserving osteotomy overlap. The TPLO/CCWO has the least effect on tibial morphology alteration, whereas the coCBLO results in the largest alteration.