Management of medial luxation of the shoulder joint in toy-breed dogs using an antiluxation pin placed lateral to the supraspinatus muscle tendon: 20 limbs (2017–2022)

Takeshi Aikawa, Shuya Kihara, Yuta Miyazaki, Hiromi Muyama, Masaaki Nishimura
J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2024 May 8:1-6. doi: 10.2460/javma.23.11.0652.

Objective: To describe the clinical and diagnostic findings, surgical procedures, and clinical course of dogs with medial shoulder luxation (MSL) treated with a novel method using an antiluxation pin.

Animals: 18 client-owned toy-breed dogs (20 treated limbs).

Clinical presentation: Toy-breed dogs with MSL were treated with the antiluxation pin (2017 to 2022). The collected data included signalment, cause of luxation, preoperative and follow-up clinical evaluations with lameness scores (LMS), and radiographic and/or CT findings.

Results: Toy Poodle was the most represented breed (17 of 18 dogs [94.4%]). The median age was 10 years. One of 18 dogs had a history of trauma. Medial luxation was confirmed in all limbs using radiography or palpation under general anesthesia. Reluxation occurred in 3 limbs at 1, 4, and 30 days after surgery, respectively. Of these 3 limbs, 1 limb underwent revision to replace the original pin and the other 2 limbs underwent no further treatment. One limb with persistent pain underwent 2 revision surgeries to adjust the pin orientation 30 and 72 days after the initial surgery. Eighteen limbs remained unluxated after the initial or revision surgery until the final follow-up (median, 18.5 months; range, 1 to 63 months). The LMS at the final follow-up for the 18 unluxated limbs (mean, 0.5) was significantly lower than the preoperative LMS (mean, 4.5) (P < .01).

Clinical relevance: A novel method of the antiluxation pin provides an alternative surgical treatment for MSL in toy-breed dogs that is minimally invasive and technically simple.