Kinematic and kinetic analysis of dogs during trotting after amputation of a pelvic limb.

Hogy SM, Worley DR, Jarvis SL, Hill AE, Reiser RF 2nd, Haussler KK.
2013 Sept

Objective-To evaluate biomechanical gait adaptations in dogs after amputation of a pelvic limb. Animals-Client-owned dogs (12 pelvic limb-amputee and 24 quadruped [control] dogs). Procedures-Dogs were trotted across 3 in-series force platforms. Spatial kinematic and kinetic data were recorded for each limb during the stance phase. Results-Pelvic limb amputees had increased peak braking forces in the contralateral thoracic limb and increased propulsive forces and impulses in both the ipsilateral thoracic limb and remaining pelvic limb. Time to peak braking force was significantly decreased, and time to peak propulsive force was significantly increased in all remaining limbs in amputees. Amputees had an increase in range of motion at the tarsal joint of the remaining pelvic limb, compared with results for the control dogs. Amputees had increased vertebral range of motion at T1 and T13 and increased vertebral extension at L7 within the sagittal plane. In the horizontal plane, amputees had increased lateral bending toward the remaining pelvic limb, which resulted in a laterally deviated gait pattern. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Pelvic limb amputees adjusted to loss of a limb through increased range of motion at the tarsal joint, increased range of motion in the cervicothoracic and thoracolumbar vertebral regions, and extension of the lumbosacral vertebral region, compared with results for the control dogs. Amputees alternated between a laterally deviated gait when the pelvic limb was in propulsion and a regular cranially oriented gait pattern when either forelimb was in propulsion with horizontal rotation around L7.