Elucidation of the radius and ulna fracture mechanisms in toy poodle dogs using finite element analysis

Dito Anggoro et al.
J Vet Med Sci. 2024 May 25;86(5):575-583. doi: 10.1292/jvms.23-0520.

Fractures occurring in the distal radius and ulna of toy breed dogs pose distinctive challenges for veterinary practitioners, requiring specialized treatment approaches primarily based on anatomical features. 

Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was applied to conduct numerical experiments to determine stress distribution across the bone. This methodology offers an alternative substitute for directly investigating these phenomena in living dog experiments, which could present ethical obstacles. A three-dimensional bone model of the metacarpal, carpal, radius, ulna, and humerus was reconstructed from Computed Tomography (CT) images of the toy poodle and dachshund forelimb. The model was designed to simulate the jumping and landing conditions from a vertical distance of 40 cm to the ground within a limited timeframe. 

The investigation revealed considerable variations in stress distribution patterns between the radius and ulna of toy poodles and dachshunds, indicating notably elevated stress levels in toy poodles compared to dachshunds. In static and dynamic stress analysis, toy poodles exhibit peak stress levels at the distal radius and ulna. The Von Mises stresses for toy poodles reach 90.07 MPa (static) and 1,090.75 MPa (dynamic) at the radius and 1,677.97 MPa (static) and 1,047.98 MPa (dynamic) at the ulna. Conversely, dachshunds demonstrate lower stress levels for 5.39 MPa (static) and 231.79 MPa (dynamic) at the radius and 390.56 MPa (static) and 513.28 MPa (dynamic) at the ulna.

The findings offer valuable insights for modified treatment approaches in managing fractures in toy breed dogs, optimizing care and outcomes.