Complications and outcomes of total hip arthroplasty in dogs with luxoid hip dysplasia: 18 cases (2010–2022)

Carma Horwood, Jose Luis Carvajal, Antonio Pozzi, Stanley Eunwoo Kim
Vet Surg. 2024 Apr 2. doi: 10.1111/vsu.14087.

Objective: To describe the complications and outcomes in dogs with luxoid hip dysplasia (LH) undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA) and compare complication rates with THA in non-LH dogs.

Study design: Retrospective study.

Sample population: Client-owned dogs (n = 217) undergoing primary THA (n = 238).

Methods: Medical records (2010-2022) of dogs undergoing THA were reviewed, and LH was defined as complete dorsal displacement of the femoral head from the acetabulum on lateral projection radiographs. Major or catastrophic complications, revisions, and outcomes were recorded for all dogs and they were compared between LH and non-LH groups.

Results: Eighteen cases met the subcriterion for the LH group and 220 cases met the subcriterion for inclusion in the non-LH group. There were 14 complications in 13/18 dogs with LH; seven were intraoperative (femoral fissure/fracture) and seven were postoperative (dorsal luxation, n = 5; femoral fracture, n = 1; acetabular cup septic loosening, n = 1). Revisions were performed for all LH dogs that encountered complications; satisfactory outcomes were achieved in 12/13 dogs. Overall, LH dogs had a higher risk of developing complications (p < .001), including intraoperative fracture (p < .001) and postoperative dorsal luxation (p = .019) when compared with non-LH dogs.

Conclusion: Luxoid hip dysplasia was associated with a higher risk of major complications following THA in dogs, specifically intraoperative fissure/fracture and postoperative dorsal luxation. Despite the increased risk, revisions typically yielded satisfactory outcomes.

Clinical significance: Luxoid hip dysplasia is an important risk factor for the development of major complications in dogs undergoing THA.