Caudoventral hip luxation in 160 dogs (2003–2023): A multicenter retrospective case series

Jun Ren Loh, Nicholas Cleland, Lucas Beierer, Jarrod Drew, Lance Wilson, Peter Delisser
Vet Surg. 2024 Apr 1. doi: 10.1111/vsu.14093.

Objective: To describe patient characteristics, etiology, treatment outcomes and complications of caudoventral hip luxation (CvHL) in a large cohort of dogs and investigate factors associated with nonsurgical treatment outcomes.

Study design: Multicenter retrospective case series.

Animal population: A total of 160 client-owned dogs (170 limbs).

Methods: Medical records from 2003 to 2023 were reviewed for signalment, history, treatment outcomes and complications. Logistic regression was performed to investigate factors associated with nonsurgical treatment outcome.

Results: Low-trauma accidents accounted for 82.9% of cases. Over-represented breeds included poodles (38.1%) and poodle crosses (11.3%). On a per-treatment basis, success rates of closed reduction alone, closed reduction/Ehmer sling, closed reduction/hobbles were 9.1%, 15.2% and 48.8%, respectively. When accounting for repeated attempts using closed reduction alone, Ehmer sling, or hobbles, eventual success rate increased to 10.3%, 18.5% and 61.8%, respectively. Success rate for toggle rod stabilization was 88.2%. Complication rate of hobbles was 31.9% versus 60.6% for Ehmer slings. Use of hobbles (OR:7.62, p = .001, CI:2.23-26.05), treatment by specialist surgeons (OR:2.68, p = .047, CI: 1.01-7.08) and increasing age (OR:1.15, p < .005, CI: 1.08-1.23) were associated with successful nonsurgical treatments.

Conclusion: Low-trauma etiology, and poodles and their crosses were over-represented in cases of CvHL. Success rate of nonsurgical treatments was lower than previously reported. Hobbles were 7.6 times more likely to be successful when compared to dogs treated without hobbles and remains a viable noninvasive first-line treatment.

Clinical significance/impact: Hobbles are recommended as a low-morbidity first-line treatment for CvHL. An Ehmer sling is not recommended. Toggle rod stabilization is an effective surgical treatment for CvHL.