Impact of breed on canine humeral condylar fracture configuration, surgical management, and outcome

Authors: 
Sanchez Villamil C, Phillips ASJ, Pegram CL, O'Neill DG, Meeson RL
Vet Surg. 2020 Apr 20. doi: 10.1111/vsu.13432.

OBJECTIVE: To report the prevalence, configuration, risk factors, fixation methods and outcomes after repair of humeral condylar fractures (HCF) in dogs.

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective nested cohort study.

SAMPLE POPULATION: One hundred twelve dogs.

METHODS: Medical records of dogs referred between January 2010 and August 2018 were searched for HCF. Demographics, fracture configuration, repair, and complications were obtained from medical records. Radiographs were assessed for fracture reduction, implant positioning, and bone healing. Short-term radiographic and clinical outcomes, and long-term owner-assessed outcome was determined. Associations between these variables were statistically analyzed.

RESULTS: Dogs with HCF represented 112 of 43 325 (0.26%, 95% CI 0.22-0.31) referrals. French bulldogs and spaniel breeds were predisposed to HCF (P < .02). French bulldogs were 6.58 times (95% CI 1.62-26.7) more likely than other breeds to have a medial HCF (P = .008). Epicondylar plate fixation was associated with reduced complications compared with lag screws and Kirschner wires (P = .009). Lameness was scored as 1 of 5 (median) in the 85 dogs with initial follow-up (median 6 weeks) after HCF repair. Outcome was considered excellent in 26 of 31 dogs with long-term follow-up (median 36 months).

CONCLUSION: French bulldogs and spaniels were predisposed to HCF, and medial HCF were more common in French bulldogs. Epicondylar plate fixation was associated with reduced complications.

CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: French bulldogs are predisposed to HCF, including medial HCF. Epicondylar plate fixation is recommended over other epicondylar fixation methods to reduce complications.